Prof.Ben Mutayoba

Benezeth Mutayoba

Professor of Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry

Prof. Benezeth Mutayoba is 2014 Winner of National Geographic/Buffet Award for Leadership in African Elephant Conservation, (The use of DNA tools in Wildlife Forensics).

For more than a decade and a half, Prof.Benezeth Mutayoba, has engaged in challenging conservation research, especially on elephants and the bushmeat trade, and has mentored students to take action to protect their unique natural heritage.

Among his many conservation accomplishments was to develop, with colleagues, mitochondrial DNA testing methods to identify bushmeat sold illegally as domestic beef and pork to hotels in Tanzania and other East African countries. His technique is now used by scientists in other parts of Africa.

  • ABOUT ME
  • RESEARCH
  • PUBLICATIONS
  • POSITION/HONORS
  • CONTACTS

Background

Prof  Benezeth Mutayoba was born in 1954, in a small rural village called Mugunga, Kanyigo Ward, Misenyi District, Kagera region, northwest of Tanzania. His parental spiritual childhood guidance coupled with free education policy instilled by the government then, provided him an opportunity to primary, secondary and later graduate education. He graduated with a Bachelor of Veterinary Science University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania in 1982, Master of Science, University of Nairobi, Kenya in 1987 and PhD from Glasgow University Veterinary School, United Kingdom in 1993.

As a veterinarian, he specialized in animal physiology, clinical chemistry and reproductive biology.  Mutayoba is currently a Professor, in the Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry, Pharmacology College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Tanzania.

He is also a vice Chairman of the Tanzania Elephant Protection Society (TEPS) ( http://tepstanzania.org/.). TEPS is a Tanzanian NGO advocacy group that highlights the plight of the African elephants in Tanzania and has been foremost in challenging the government in accepting the current elephant poaching crisis in the country.

His turning point in wildlife began when he was offered a postdoc Senior Fulbright Research Scholarship at the University of Washington and Center for Wildlife Conservation, Seattle, Washington (1997-98) to train and conduct research in wildlife endocrinology and conservation genetics under Dr Samuel Wasser. Being born and raised in an African country endowed with prosperous wildlife resources, the unabated dwindling of many wildlife species numbers which occurred in 1980s in Tanzania disturbed him.

The reckless decimation of the country’s elephant herds, huge national ivory stockpiles and unchecked illegal ivory trade outside Tanzania borders, inspired  Drs  Mutayoba and Wasser to develop molecular tools which could aid national conservation efforts of  protecting  elephants from this carnage in future. This propelled the initiation of an ambitious project aimed at providing reliable and accurate molecular tools which could be used to identify the place of origin of any piece of ivory obtained illegally or otherwise across African continent and beyond.

The genetic tools dully developed in 2004, have since been tested, validated and are currently being used to determine the origin of ivory seizures to within 260 km of their true origin. To-date, Dr Wasser in collaboration with the International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime is using these tools to determine the origins of all large ivory seizures across Africa. Bush meat molecular forensic methods have likewise been developed at SUA and are currently being used by the State Wildlife authorities for that purpose. 

Demographic disruption associated with poaching epidemic of African elephants which occurred prior 1989 CITES ban, greatly altered the social structure of matrilineal elephant family groups in many populations as old matriarchs, were targeted for their tusks.  From 2001 to 2008, Dr Mutayoba in collaboration with Drs Kathleen Gobush and Wasser, University of Washington, set out to assess the long-term impacts of this epidemic in investigating genetic, physiological, and reproductive correlates of heavily poached elephant population in Mikumi National Park, southern Tanzania using non-invasive hormone and genetic technology. 

The studies provided disturbing vivid signals of long term social breakdown for the Mikumi population, a decade and a half later since the 1989 CITES ivory ban was implemented.  Similar effects have since been confirmed by Dr Mutayoba and others in Tarangire National Park where elephants specifically in bulls which survived the 1980s poaching epidemic.

From 2007, Pr. Mutayoba also became deeply involved in a research of documenting and studying wildlife connectivity and the movement of large mammals outside the protected areas in Tanzania. As one of the lead investigators engaged in the Ruaha Corridors Project, Pr.. Mutayoba and  Dr. Clint Epps of Oregon State University used field surveys and population genetic analyses to determine past and present connectivity of wildlife populations in reserves,  for elephants, large herbivores such as impala, eland, kudu, and African buffalo, and carnivores. The extensive field surveys were conducted by the team within potential wildlife corridors among three reserves in central Tanzania. These studies documented extensive activity by elephants between reserves, and showed that elephant movement corridors supported much higher diversity of other large mammals, including large herbivores, large carnivores, and all species > 1kg.

Thus, they proposed that efforts to preserve movement corridors and stepping-stone habitats for elephants between reserves could be used as an umbrella for conservation of other generalist mammal species that are sensitive to human activity. To better understand long-term patterns of connectivity among reserves, DNA analysis done on elephant fecal samples, was contrasted to the current patterns of elephant connectivity (deduced from field surveys) with long-term and recent gene flow estimates from the non-invasive sampling.

The team found out that elephant populations have low genetic structure across Tanzania, indicating strong gene flow among populations across the country, but gene flow was limited by steeply sloped terrain. In contrast, recent gene flow estimates and current field surveys confirmed increasingly strong influence of human activity in restricting elephant movements. Thus, the recent studies provide an innovative demonstration of working across time scales to establish clearer baselines for conservation activities. Mutayoba and Epps are continuing to collaborate on analyses of the genetic structure of other large mammals across Tanzania.
 
Further to the above, Dr  Mutayoba as from 2008  co-headed other investigations that assessed the behavioral and physiological responses of wildlife to different land use-policies currently practiced in the country, and their resulting effects on the demography of wildlife populations.   As part of this work, Dr Mutayoba has mentored an international team of scientists whilst monitoring the characteristics of antelope populations across study sites that spanned a gradient of land-use categories namely, National Parks, Game Reserves Wildlife management Areas (WMAs) in central Tanzania. Walking, driving and camera trap surveys were conducted to measure animal densities, wariness, calf:cow ratios, and activity patterns. In addition, the team also collected dung for non-invasive monitoring of genetic and physiological characteristics of the study populations. 

Pr. Mutayoba has developed a modern endocrinology capacity in his university facilities to assay the fecal levels of hormones and their metabolites, specifically those associated with pregnancy or stress.  In conjunction with the use of DNA-based methods for gender assignment that Pr. Mutayoba had developed previously, these endocrinology tools pointed toward differences in reproductive characteristics and physiological characteristics of antelope across sites and over time. This work is still ongoing.

In his veterinarian capacity  Pr. Mutayoba has co-headed local and international teams of researchers to document the major course of unabated deaths of Sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei) and Bushbucks (Tragelaphus scriptus) in Rubondo Island National park , Northwestern Tanzania (2007-2008); studies on road kill dynamics and its potential for wild animal health investigations in Mikumi National Park (MINAPA) (2007 -2008); gastrointestinal parasitism of Red Colobus (Piliocolobus kiirks) in Jozan Island In Zanzibar (2013); the effect of Hippopotamus amphibious vectored subsidies on the ecology of Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (2013-14) in Ruaha National Park in Tanzania and Integrating Socio-Ecological Research and Conservation Medicine: Bush-to-Base Systems Approach against Infectious Disease in Chimpanzee of Mahale National Park, Tanzania (2013-2014).

Accomplishments

For more than a decade and a half, Benezeth Mutayoba, a professor at Sokoine University of Agriculture’s Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, has engaged in challenging conservation research, especially on elephants and the bushmeat trade, and has mentored students to take action to protect their unique natural heritage.

Among his many conservation accomplishments was to develop, with colleagues, mitochondrial DNA testing methods to identify bushmeat sold illegally as domestic beef and pork to hotels in Tanzania and other East African countries. His technique is now used by scientists in other parts of Africa. He also served as a member of the Bushmeat Crisis Task Force aimed at identifying and supporting solutions that effectively respond to the bushmeat crisis around the world. In addition, Mutayoba collaborated on research examining the long-term impacts of poaching of female elephants in Mikumi National Park in southern Tanzania.

The research found that survivors who had lost kin displayed altered behavior, heightened stress levels and lower fertility. These long-term impacts also prevail in elephants that survived past heavy poaching in Tarangire National Park in northern Tanzania. Mutayoba presents these finding at various venues to communicate that poaching has long-lasting effects on elephant populations.

He also has been instrumental in several genetic studies to develop DNA tools for determining the origin of seized ivory, and, as vice chairman of the Tanzania Elephant Protection Society, he has challenged the Tanzanian government’s denial of the elephant poaching crisis and has raised awareness of its scope and impact.

As a result, at the end of 2013, Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete launched “Operation Tokomeza” to end elephant poaching in Tanzania and ordered aerial counts of all the major elephant populations in southern Tanzanian reserves and national parks. Additionally, Mutayoba is deeply involved in researching and documenting wildlife connectivity and the movement of large animals outside the protected areas in Tanzania.

Courses and Teaching

Student Supervision

1. Dr E.L. Mollel (MSc Animal Science, SUA) : The effect of nutrition and draught stress on the reproductive performance of donkeys in Tanzania. Graduated 1998

2. Dr Y.S. Kasilima. (Msc in Reproductive Biology, University of Nairobi). Effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on the plasma levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone and on the pituitary and testes in male rabbits. Graduated 1999 

3. Okot Pamela (Miss) (MSc Animal Science, SUA) The effects of dietary energy and leucena leaf meal on the performance of growing layers. Graduated 1998. 

4. Mellau N.N. (Mrs) (MSc Animal Science, SUA). The effect of leucena meaf meal on egg production and egg quality. Graduated 1999

5. Dr Malisa A.L. (MVM-SUA) Molecular identification of wildlife products using PCR and RFLP.Graduated, 2000.

6. Dr Ishengoma D.R.S. (MVM-SUA) Determination of pedigree and genetic relatedness of elephants in Tarangire National Park using DNA genomic microsatellites. Graduated 2003 

7. Dr Mbando L.M. G.  (MVM-SUA) Investigation on Oxytetracycline residues in beef consumed in Morogoro and Dodoma Municipalities Graduated 2004.

8. Dr Mbugi Erasto (MVM-SUA) Study on multiplicity of infections and drug resistance to Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mlimba, Tanzania. Graduated 2004

9. Rugaimukamu A.E. (MSc-SUA) Studies of on road kill dynamics and its potential for wild animal health investigations: A case study for  Mikumi National Park (Graduated 2010)

10. James Mpemba (MSc Biochem) The effect of hippopotamus amphibius-vectored subsidiaries on the ecology of Aquatic and Terrestrial ecosystems (Starting is second year of Research, 2013)

11. Dr Festo Komba (MSc One Health Molecular Biology) Health investigation and molecular characterization of human metapneumovirus in chimpanzee in Mahale Mountain National Park (He is now starting is second year of Research, 2013

Supervision of PhD and Post Docs

12. Ms Gobush Kathleen (PhD-University of Washington) Consequences of Social Disturbance Associated with Poaching of the African Elephant- Mikumi National Park  (Registered University of Washington (Co-supervisor with Prof S.K. Wasser) (Graduated 2008) 

13. Dr Malisa A.L. (PhD-SUA)  Determination of the growth of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and SP-Artesunate (ART) antimalarial combination therapy in Southern Tanzania (Graduated 2008)

14. Dr Clinton Epps (Post Doc) (Assistant Prof: Oregon State University) Past and present connectivity of wildlife populations in Tanzania, East Africa. (Jan 2006-2009)

15. Dr Chantal J. Stoner (Post Doc) (University of Berkeley California)  Behavioural, Physiological and Reproductive Characteristics of Wildlife populations across a Protected Area System and Surrounding Areas (Dec 2008 – 2010)


Undergraduates Special Projects


16. Mwakapuja  R.S. (Special Project for BVM) : Studies on acute phase response in infectious and non-infectious conditions on the dog in Morogoro Urban District.

17. Kashoma  I.P.B. (Special Project for BVM): Studies on acute phase response during some haemoparasitic infections in the bovine in Morogoro Urban District.

18. Muumba J. (Special Project for BVM) Acute phase response in cattle infected with Theileria parva, 2000.

19. Rugaimukamu, E.A. (Special Project for BSc Wid. Mag.) Molecular identification of bush meat in Tanzania (2004)

20. Mwanyika G: (Special Project for BLS) Study on helminthosis in dogs and associated biochemical changes at SUA Veterinary Clinic and Nearby dips (2007)

21. Batengana Bernard: (Special Project for BLS) Studies on gastrointestinal parasitic infections in Sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekii) and bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus): A case of Rubondo Island National Park in Tanzania (2008). 

22. Alibahi Faraji:  (Special Project for BLS) Studies of haemoparasites, ectoparasites and Biting flies affecting (Tragelaphus spekei) and Bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) in Rubondo Island National Park (2008)

23. Lucas Matatizo (Special Project for BSc Wild) Studies o Species richness and relative abundance of ungulates and large carnivores inside and outside core protected areas of Great Ruaha Ecosystem (2010). 

24. Rugumisa Bernadether (Special Project for BLS) Molecular Identification of sex in captive wild birds targeted for export from Tanzania (2012)

25. Grace Paul (Special Project for BLS) Molecular screening for NDV infection in wild birds targeted for export from Tanzania  (2012)

26. Shauri, Haliya Suleiman (Special Project for BLS) Determination of the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Zanzibar Red Colobus (Piliocolobus kiirks) in Jozan National Park (2013)

27. John  Paul (Special Project for BLS) The estimation of ascorbic levels in different locally made juices in Morogoro Municipal (2013)

28. Lupala Abel (Special Project for BLS) Determination of quality of broiler feeds formulated by different broiler farmers in Morogoro Municipal (2013)

Research Interest
  • Clinical Chemistry 
     
  • Molecular Forensics 
     
  • Conservation genetics 
Research Projects

1. Behavioural, Physiological and Reproductive Characteristics of Wildlife populations across a Protected Areas System and Surrounding Areas. 

PI:  B.M. Mutayoba (SUA) Dr Chantal J. Stoner , and Justin Brashares (University of California, Berkeley) (Field work completed and initial hormonal sample analysis completed at SUA, further analyses currently being done in the US). 

Funding by the International Research Fellowship Program of the National Science Foundation. Field work completed lab-work ongoing.

2. Integrating socio-ecological research and conservation medicine to strengthen capacity in Tanzania toward protecting chimpanzees from infectious disease approved for Funding by USFWS, ($92,835) 

PI: Mutayoba B.M (SUA)  Taranjit (Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, US) and others Prof E.N.Kimbita (SUA) and Jatinder Singh (Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, US.TAWIRI approved the project on August 2013.

3. The effect of hippopotamus amphibius-vectored subsidiaries on the ecology of Aquatic and Terrestrial ecosystems”  Funded by International Research Fellowship Program NSF ($5,500)

PI Douglas McCauley (University of California at Berkeley US) BM Mutayoba (SUA).

 

My publications are found at Google Scholar

Below is also a list of my publications


1. Mutayoba, B.M., O'Hara-Ireri, H.B. and Gombe, S. (1988) Trypanosome-induced depression of plasma thyroxine levels in pre-pubertal and adult female goats. Acta Endocrinologica (Copenh) 119: 21 – 26.

2. Mutayoba, B.M., Gombe, S., Kaaya, G.P. and Waindi, E.N. (1988) Effects of chronic experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection on the ovaries, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Research in Veterinary Science 44: 140 - 146.

3. Mutayoba, B.M., Gombe, S., Waindi, E.N. and Kaaya, G.P. (1988) Depression of ovarian function and plasma progesterone an oestradiol-17ß in female goats chronically infected with Trypanosoma congolense.  Acta Endocrinologica (Copenh) 117:477 - 484.

4. Mutayoba, B.M., Gombe, S., Kaaya, G.P. and Waindi, E.N. (1988) Trypanosome-induced ovarian dysfunction: evidence of higher residual fertility in trypanotolerant small East African goats. Acta Tropica 45:225 - 237.

5. Mutayoba, B.M. and Gombe, S. (1989).The effect of African trypanosomiasis on plasma cortisol and thyroxine concentration in goats. Research Veterinary Science 47: 315 - 318. 

6. Mutayoba, B.M. and Gombe, S. (1989) Seasonal variation in oestrous and plasma progesterone and oestradiol-17ß in the small East African goats.  Tanzanian Veterinary Bulletin. 9:19 - 27.

7. Mutayoba, B.M. and Gombe, S. (1989) Can changes in thyroid function be used as indicator of trypanolerance in goats?.  Tanzanian Veterinary Bulletin. 9: 38 - 44.

8. Mutayoba, B.M., Gombe, S., Waindi, E.N. and Kaaya, G.P. (1989).  Comparative trypanotolerance of the small East African breed of goats from different localities to Trypanosoma congolense.  Veterinary Parasitology. 31:95 - 105.

9. Mutayoba, B.M., Meyer, H.H.D., Osaso, J. and Gombe, S. (1989). Trypanosome-induced increase in prostaglandin F2 and its relationship with corpus luteum function in the goat.  Theriogenology 32:545 - 555.

10. Mutayoba, B.M., Meyer, H.H.D., Schams, D. and Schallenberger, E. (1990).  Development of a  sensitive enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) for LH determination in bovine plasma using a streptavidin-biotin technique.  Acta Endocrinologica (Copenh) 122:227 - 232.

11. Meyer, H.H.D., Sauerwein, H. and Mutayoba, B.M. (1990).  Immunoaffinity chromatography and a biotin-streptavidin amplification enzymeimmunoassay for sensitive and specific estimation of oestradiol-17ß. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 35:263 - 269.

12. Seely, C., Mutayoba, B.M., Eckersall, P.D., Gray, C.E. and Holmes, P.H. (1993).  The effects of experimental infection with Trypanosoma congolense on the adrenocorticoid responses in Scottish Blackface rams.  Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 87:123 - 124.

13. Mutayoba, B.M., Eckersall, V., Jeffcoate, I.A. Cestnik, V. and Holmes, P.H. (1994).  Effects of Trypanosoma congolense infection on the pulsatile secretion of plasma luteinizing hormone and testosterone and responses to injection of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility  102:425 - 431.

14. Mutayoba B.M., Eckersall, P.D., Cestnik,  V., Jeffcoate, I.A., Gray C. and P.H. Holmes (1995)   Effects of Trypanosoma congolense on pituitary and adrenal function in sheep: changes in the adrenal gland and cortisol secretion. Research in Veterinary Science. 58:174 - 179.

15. Mutayoba B.M., Eckersall, P.D., Cestnik,  V., Jeffcoate, I.A., Gray C. and P.H. Holmes (1995)  Effects of Trypanosoma congolense on pituitary and adrenal function in sheep: responses to exogenous corticotrophin-releasing hormone.  Research in Veterinary Science 58:180 - 185.

16. Mutayoba, B.M. (1995) The pathogenesis of trypanosome-induced testicular dysfunction in livestock. Tanzania Veterinary Journal 15:(1) 28 - 46.

17. Mutayoba B.M. and Eckersall, P.D. (1995) Acute phase response in rams infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Tanzania Veterinary Journal. 15 (2) 79 - 92.

18. Mutayoba, B.M., Eckersall, P.D.,  Jeffcoate, I.A., Cestnik, V. , Holmes, P.H. and Reid, S.W.J. (1995)  Alterations in plasma luteinizing hormone and testosterone concentrations and response to GnRH in sheep infected with Trypanosoma congolense  Animal Reproduction Science.  40:203 – 214.

19. Mutayoba, B.M., Eckersall, V., Cestnik, V., O'Shaughnessy, P.J.,  Jeffcoate, I.A. and Holmes, P.H. (1996)  Effect of castration on luteinizing hormone secretion and response to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in sheep infected with Trypanosoma congolense.  European Journal of Endocrinology. (Formerly Acta Endocr. Copenh)  134: 115- 122.

20. Silayo, R. S., Kimbita, E. N., Mutayoba, B. M., & Maselle, R. M. (1996). Use and abuse of acaricides and trypanocides in the field. Preliminary findings from Morogoro. Tanzania Veterinary Journal 2: 123-130.

21. Mutayoba, B.M. (1997) Changes in the testes, epididymis and prostate gland in the ram infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Tanzania Veterinary Journal 17 48-62.

22. Kasilima Y.S., Wango E.O., Mutayoba B.M., Sekadde-Kigondu, C, Nyindo, M, Mola P., Winga, J. and Odongo, H.  (1997) Schistosoma mansoni- Newzeland Model : Effects on Plasma testosterone levels. Tanzania Veterinary Journal (Supplement) 17 (3) 148-158

23. Mutayoba B.M. O’Shaughnessey P.J., Jeffcoate. I.A., Eckersall, P.D., Cestnick, V. and Holmes, P.H. (1997) Effect of experimental infection with Trypanosoma congolense and scrotal insulation on Leydig cell steroidogenesis in the ram. Theriogenology  48: 411-422.

24.  Msolla, P., Mnembuka B.V. Mutayoba B.M. (1998) Aquaculture: Prospects and challenges in Tanzania. Tanzania Veterinary Journal 18:43-47

25.  Aboud, A.A.O, Mutayoba, B.M., Mollel, E.L. (1999) Supplementary feeding of working donkeys: influence of plane of nutrition on body condition and levels of blood metabolites. Sudanese Journal of Animal Production. 12: 5-15

26. Mugittu, K.N., Silayo, R.S., Majiwa, P.A.O., Kimbita, E.K., Mutayoba, B.M. and R. Maselle (2001) Application of PCR and DNA probes in the characterization of trypanosomes in the blood of cattle in farms in Morogoro, Tanzania. Veterinary Parasitology, 94: 177-189.

27. Maselle R,M, Sebatware J.B, Mutayoba B.M., Silayo, R.S. and Kimbita E.N  (2002) Comparative Haematological and Biochemical changes in Small East African goats infected with Trypanosoma vivax and T. congolense  Tanzania Veterinary Journal 2:141-151

28.  Mutayoba, S.K., Pamela O. Mutayoba B.M. (2003) The performance of growing pullets fed diets with varying energy and leucena leaf meal levels. Livestock Research for Rural Development 15:8 www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd15/8/cont158.htm.

29. Malisa, A.L., Gwakisa, P., Balthazary, S and Mutayoba, B. M (2003) Genetic diversity among wild and herbivore species in Tanzania. Tanzania Veterinary Journal 22 (2)112-124

30. Y.S. Kasilima, E.O. Wango, C.S. Kigondu, B.M. Mutayoba and M. Nyindo   (2004) Plasma bioactive LH and testosterone profiles in male New Zealand rabbits experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni  Acta Tropica, 92 (3) 165-172.

31. Samuel K. Wasser, Andrew M. Shedlock, Kenine Comstock, Benezeth Mutayoba, Matthew Stephens (2004) Assigning African Elephant DNA to a Geographic Region of Origin: Application to the ivory trade. Proceedings of National Academy of Science. (PNAS) USA. 101 (41):14847-14852 (published October 12. 2004 as Cover article).

32. Allen Malisa, Paul Gwakisa, Sakurani Balthazary, Sam  Wasser and Benezeth Mutayoba (2005) Species and gender differentiation between and among domestic and wild animals using mitochondrial and sex-linked DNA markers. African Journal of Biotechnology 4 (11) 1269-1274.

33. Mollel E.L., Mutayoba B.M. and Aboud A.A. (2006): Effect of nutrition and draught on reproductive and adrenal functions of female donkeys Tanzania Journal Agricultural Sciences 6: 112-122.

34. Malisa, A. L.1, Gwakisa, P., Balthazary, S., Wasser, S. K. and Mutayoba, B. M. (2006): The potential of mitochondrial DNA markers and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for domestic and wild species identification. African Journal of Biotechnology 5 (18), 1588-1593.

35. Erasto V. Mbugi, Benezeth M. Mutayoba, Sakurani T. Balthazary, Allen L. Malisa, Thomas B. Nyambo and Hassan Mshinda (2006) Multiplicity of infections and level of recrudescence in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mlimba, Tanzania. African Journal of Biotechnology 5 (18), 1655-1662.

36. Erasto V Mbugi, Benezeth M Mutayoba, Allen L Malisa, Sakurani T Balthazary, Thomas B Nyambo  and Hassan Mshinda (2006) Drug resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mlimba, Tanzania Malaria Journal, doi:10.1186/1475-2875-5-94 http://www.malariajournal.com/content/5/1/94

37. Samuel K. Wasser, Celia Mail, Rebecca Nelson, Benezeth Mutayoba, Emily Kisamo, Bill Clark, Matthew Stephens (2007) Using DNA to track the origin of the largest Ivory seizure since the 1989 trade ban Proceedings of National Academy of Science. (PNAS USA) 104 (10) 4228-4233 Published Online Feb 26 2007.

38. Gobush Kathleen Schuyler,, Benezeth M. Mutayoba, Samuel K. Wasser (2008) Long-term impacts of poaching on relatedness, stress physiology, and reproductive output of adult female African elephants. Conservation Biology  22, (6) 1590–1599.

39. Samwuel K. Wasser, Willian Joseph Clack, Ofir Drori, Emily Stephen Kisamo, Celia Mailland, Benezeth Mutayoba and Matthew Stephen  (2008) Combating the Illegal Trade in African Elephant Ivory  with DNA Forensics. Conservation Biology 22 (4), 1065–107.

40. Ishengoma, D.R.S., Shedlock, A.M., Foley, C.A.H, Foley, L.J, Wasser, S.K. , Balthazary, S.T. and Mutayoba, B.M (2008) Effects of poaching on bull mating success in a free ranging African elephant (Loxodonta africana) population in Tarangire National Park, Tanzania. Conservation Genetics 9 (2): 247-55.

41. Samuel Wasser, Joyce Poole, Phyllis Lee, Keith Lindsay, Andrew Dobson, John Hart, Iain Douglas-Hamilton,  George Wittemyer ,  Petter Granli, Bethan Morgan, Jody Gunn, Susan Alberts, Rene Beyers, Patrick Chiyo, Harvey Croze, Richard Estes, Kathleen Gobush, Ponjoli Joram, Alfred Kikoti, Jonathan Kingdon, Lucy King, David Macdonald, Cynthia Moss, Benezeth Mutayoba, Steve Njumbi, Patrick Omondi, Katarzyna Nowak (2010) Elephants, Ivory, and Trade.  Science 327: 1331-1332.

42. Clinton Wakefield Epps,  Benezeth M Mutayoba,  Lauren E Gwin and Justin S Brashares (2011) An empirical evaluation of the African elephant as a focal species for connectivity planning.  Diversity and Distributions, A conservation Journal of Biogeography   17 (4) 603-612.

43. Allen Malisa, Richard Pearce, Benezeth Mutayoba, Salim Abdulla, Hassan Mshinda, Steven Patrick Kachur, Peter B. Bloland and Cally Roper (2011) Media, health workers and policy makers’ Relationship and their impact on policy adoption: A population genetics perspective. Malaria Research and Treatment  doi:10.4061/2011/217276  http://www.sage-hindawi.com/journals/mrt/2011/217276/

44. Malisa A, Pearce R., Abdullah S, Mutayoba B. Mshinda H, Kachur P, Bloland P, Roper C (2011) Molecular monitoring of resistant dhfr and dhps allelic haplotypes in Morogoro and Mvomero districts in south eastern Tanzania.  African Health Sciences 11(2): 142 – 150.

45. Malisa AL, Pearce RJ, Mutayoba BM, Abdullah S, Mshinda H, Kachur PS, Bloland P, Roper C  (2011). The evolution of pyrimethamine resistant dhfr in Plasmodium falciparum of south-eastern Tanzania: comparing selection under SP alone vs SP+Artesunate combination. Malaria Journal. 10:317 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-10-317.

46. Rachel S. Crowhurst, Tom D. Mullins, Benezeth M. Mutayoba, Clinton W. Epps (2012) Characterization of eight polymorphic loci for Maasai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) using non-invasive genetic samples  Conservation Genetics Resources DOI 10.1007/s12686-012-9739-x

47. Allen Malisa, Richard Pearce, Ben Mutayoba, Salim Abdullah, Hassan Mshinda, Patrick Kachur, Peter Bloland and Cally Roper (2012) Quantification of markers of antimalarial drug resistance from an area of high malaria transmission: Comparing frequency with prevalence. African Journal of Biotechnology 11 (69), 13250-13260.

48. Clinton W. Epps, Samuel K. Wasser, Jonah L. Keim, Benezeth M. Mutayoba, Justin S. Brashares (March, 2013) Quantifying past and present connectivity illuminates a rapidly changing landscape for the African elephant Molecular Ecology  22 (6), 1574–1588. doi: 10.1111/mec.12198.

49. S.K. Mutayoba, B.M. Mutayoba and R.C. Noble (2013) Broiler Chick Body Weight and Lipid Compositional Changes of the Yolk Sac and Liver as Influenced by Dietary Fat Sources International Journal of Poultry Science 12 (9): 545-549.
 

Prof. Benezeth Mutayoba is 2014 Winner of Geographic/Buffett Awards for Leadership in Conservation

Pro.Ben Mutayoba Receiving Award

Professor Benezeth Mutayoba , professor at Tanzania Sokoine University of Agriculture and Vice Chairman of the Tanzania Elephant Protection society, Left Dr. John Francis – National Geographic Vice President for Research, Conservation and Exploration and on right Gary E Knell National Geographic President and Chief Executive Officer.

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