Rudovick Reuben Kazwala

Professor of Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health
College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health
Summary information

Rudovick Kazwala, DVM, MVM, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health at Sokoine University of Agriculture. His research focuses on bacterial and viral zoonotic diseases.



Primary School

  • Mwadui Primary School (1965 - 1971)

Secondary School

  • O-Level:    Bagamoyo Secondary School (1972-1975)
  • A-Level:    Moshi Secondary School (1976- 1977)


Postdoctoral - training

  • Ecosystem Health -Envirovet Summer Institute – University of Illinois June – July 2007


Research Interest

Veterinary Public Health, Ecosystem and Population Health

Research Projects

​​​​​​Research Grants


Title of The Project

Source of Funds

Duration (period)


AfriqueOne ASPIRE - "African Science Partnership for Intervention Research Excellence - DELTAS Programme

Wellcome Trust

2016 (5 years)


PREDICT 2 – pre empty emerging zoonotic diseases - Emerging Pandemic Threats


2014 (5 years)


Evaluating Zoonotic Viral Sharing in South Tanzania

US Govt. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)

2014 (3 years)


Zoonotic Select Agents in Tanzania - A One Health Approach to Rift Valley Fever and Brucellosis Surveillance in Tanzania

US Govt. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)

2014 (3 years)


Social, Economic and Environmental Drivers of Zoonoses in Tanzania (SEEDZ) - ZELS Programme


2014 (4 years)


Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat

pathways (HAZEL) - ZELS Programme


2014 (4 years)


Molecular epidemiology of brucellosis in northern Tanzania - ZELS Programme


2014 (4 years)


Integrated Research on Bacterial Zoonoses in Northern Tanzania

National Science Foundation - US

2011 (4 years)


Strengthening Tanzania Livestock Health and Pastoralist Nutrition and Livelihood in a changing climate


2011 (3 Years)


Towards the strategic control of endemic foot-and-mouth disease in Africa: new techniques for a neglected problem


2010  (4 Years)



Tuberculosis – novel transmissions in the rural Tanzania

National Institute of Health

- US

2010 (5 Years)


PREDICT – pre empty emerging zoonotic diseases


2009 (5 Years)


Development of a vaccination strategy for the control of Malignant Catarrhal Fever


2010 (3 Years)


Integrated Control of Neglected Zoonoses (ICONZ) in Africa

European Union

2009 (5 year)


Bovine tuberculosis in livestock and wildlife in the Eastern and Southern African Wildlife-Livestock interfaces

GDF Germany Research Foundation

2009 (3 years)


African Research Consortium for Ecosystem and Population Health: "Expanding Frontiers in Health

Wellcome Trust

2009 (5 years)


Effective management of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Africa: Towards adapted control policy

Wellcome Trust

2006  (4 years)


Health for Animal and Livelihood Improvement ‘HALI’ Project


2006(3 years)


Bovine Tuberculosis and Host characterisation

SNSF Swiss

2005 (3 years)


Rabies Control project

Wellcome Trust

2003 (4years)


Investigating the impact of brucellosis in Tanzania




Quantifying Costs and Risk Factors of Bovine Tuberculosis in Tanzania (R7357 )


1998 (3years)


Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle and Man in Tanzania (R7229)


1998(3 years)


The development of molecular techniques for diagnosis, identification and strain typing of Mycobacterium bovis in Tanzania

Wellcome Trust

1997 (3years)



Journal articles

1) Kazwala, R.R., Hannan, J., Collins, J. D., Crinion, R.A.P. and O'Mahony H. (1990) The factors responsible for the introduction and spread of Campylobacter jejuni in Commercial poultry meat production.  Veterinary Records 126:305.

2) Kazwala, R.R., Hannan, J. and Collins J. D. (1992) The factors responsible for the establishment and spread of Campylobacter jejuni in young chickens: Experimental studies. Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine 13:19-26

3) Kazwala, R.R. and Batamuzi, E. K. (1992) Livestock and Environment: Positive  aspects.  Tanzania Veterinary Journal 11:12-17

4) Shoo, M. K., Semvua, R. H., Kazwala, R.R., and Msolla, P.M. (1992) Dairy cattle mortality rates, causes of deaths and associated factors on farms of Eastern Zone of Tanzania . Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine 13:59-62

5) Kazwala, R.R., Jiwa, S.F.H. and Nkya, A.E. (1993) The Role of Management Systems  in the Epidemiology of Thermophilic Campylobacters Among Poultry of Eastern Zone of Tanzania. Epidemiology and Infection 110:273-278

6) Kazwala R. R. (1993) The Epidemiology of the Emerging Zoonosis associated with Foods of  Animal Origin: Review. Tanzania Veterinary Journal 12(2):71

7) Jiwa, S.F.H., Kazwala, R.R. and Namahungu, E. (1994) Prevalence of Campylobacter spp.    in    Clinically    Normal    Goats    Kept    Under    Various    Management    Systems: Epidemiological Case Study in Urban Tanzania. Journal of Small Ruminant Research. 15:97-100

8) Kambarage, D.M.K., Kimera,S.I, Kazwala, R.R. and Mafwere, B.A.K. (1994) Disease conditions responsible for condemnation of carcass and organs in short-horn zebu cattle in Tanzania. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 22:249-255.

9) Kambarage, D.M., Mafwere, B.A.K., Mtambo, M.M.A. and Kazwala, R.R. (1995) Parasitic otitis in rabbits. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 43:57-62.

10) Sinclair, K., Challans, J.A., Kazwala, R.R. Hewnson, G. and Sharp, J.M.(1995) A multiplex polymerase chain reaction for distinguishing Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Molecular and Cellular Probes 9:291-295

11) Sinclair, K., van Embden, J.D.A., Kazwala, R.R., Daborn, C.J. and Sharp, J.M. (1995) Bovine tuberculosis in Tanzania. In Tuberculosis in Wildlife and Domestic Animals, Series 3 . Ed. Griffin, F. and de Lisle, G. University of Otago Press, Dunedin, New Zealand 20- 22pp.

12) Jiwa, S.F.H., Kazwala,R.R., Tungaraza, R., Kimera, S.I. and Kalaye, W.J. (1996) Bovine brucellosis SAT prevalence and breed disposition according to prevalent management systems in the Lake Victoria Zone of Tanzania. Preventive Veterinary Medicine  26 (3-4):341-346

13) Daborn, C.J., Grange, J. and Kazwala, R.R. (1996). The bovine tuberculosis cycle -  an African perspective. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 81:27S-32S.

14) Chibunda, R.T., Muhairwa, A.P., Kambarage, D.M., Kusiluka, L.J.M. and Kazwala, R.R.(1997) Eimeriosis in Dairy cattle farms in Morogoro municipality of Tanzania. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 31:191-197.

15) Mtambo, M.M.A., Sebatwale, J.B., Kambarage, D.M., Muhairwa, A.P., Maeda, G.E., Kusiluka, L.J.M. and Kazwala, R.R. (`1997) Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocytes in cattle and wildlife in Morogoro region, Tanzania, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 31:185-190

16) Sadruddin F.H. Jiwa, Rudovick R. Kazwala, Ali A.O. Aboud and William J. Kalaye. (1997) Bovine tuberculosis in the Lake Victoria zone of Tanzania and its possible consequence in to human health in HIV/AIDS era. Veterinary Research Communications 21:533-39

17) Sanga, A.A., Kambarage, D.M., Kazwala, R.R., Kusiluka, L.J.M. (1997) Microbial  Isolates from Mastitic Udders following Chemotherapy Failure. Tanzania  Veterinary  Journal. 17:133-136.

18) Kambarage, D.M., Abel, J.S., Mtambo, M.M.A., Muhairwa, A.P., Kusiluka, L.J.M. and Kazwala, R.R. (1998) Prevalence of Eimeria and Cryptosporidia Oocysts in Chickens in Tanzania. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal.

19) Kazwala, R.R., Daborn, C.J., Kusiluka, L.J.M., Jiwa, S.F.H., Sharp, J.M. and Kambarage, D.M. (1998) The isolation of Mycobacterium species from raw milk of pastoral cattle of the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Tropical Animal Health and Production 30 (4):233-239.

20) Kambarage D.M, Chilongola, J.O., Kusiluka L.J.M, Mtambo, MMA and Kazwala R.R. (1998). Coccidiosis in Agropastoral goats in Morogoro District Tanzania. Tanzania  Veterinary Journal 18:30-36.

21) Cousins, D.V., Skuce, R.A., Kazwala, R.R. and van Embden, J.D.A. (1998). Towards standardised approach to DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium bovis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases 2(6):471-478.
22) Maselle, R.M., Kinunghi, Kusiluka, L.J.M., Kazwala, R.R., Mlangwa, JED. And Kambarage, D.M. (1998). Prevalence, Oocyst output and pathological changes associated with eimeriosis in caged Rabbits. Tanzania Veterinary Journal 18:145-153.

23) Kambarage D.M, Mwamengele G.L.M, Kusiluka L.J.M, Esrony K and Kazwala R.R. (1998) An abattoir study of the prevalence and pathological changes associated with Oncocerca armillata infection in pastoral cattle in Tanzania. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal 29:7-

24) Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Balemba, O.B.; Ezron1, K.K.; Mtambo, M.M.A; Kazwala, R.R.; Kitime, A. and Kambarage, D.M. (1999) Ancylostomiasis And Haematological Profiles In Dogs In Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania  Tanzania Veterinary Journal 19: 38-42

25) S.F.H. Jiwa, R.R. Kazwala R. Tungaraza.and P.M. Msolla (1999) Prevalence Of Brucellosis In Goat And Sheep In The Lake Victoria Zone Of Tanzania As Determined By Serum Agglutination Test (SAT). Tanzania Veterinary Journal 19: 53-59.

26) R.R. Kazwala, C.J. Daborn, J.M. Sharp, D.M. Kambarage , Jiwa, S.F.H and N.A. Mbembati. (2001). Isolations of mycobacterium bovis from human cases of cervical adenitis in Tanzania : A cause for concern?. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases. 5 (1):87-91.

27) Kazwala, R.R., Kambarage, D.M., 1Daborn C.J., 2Nyange, J., 3Jiwa, S.F.H. and 4Sharp
J.M.  (2000).  Risk factors associated with occurrence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle of   the Southern Highlands of Tanzania . Veterinary Research Communications 25: 609-614.

28) L.J.M. Kusiluka, B. Ojeniyi, N.F. Friis, R.R. Kazwala and B. Kokotovic. (2000). Mycoplasmas Isolated from the Respiratory Tract of Cattle and Goats in Tanzania. Acta Vet. Scand. 41:299-309.

29) L.J.M. Kusiluka, W. D. Semuguruka, R. R. Kazwala, B. Ojeniyi and N.F. Friis. (2000). Demonstration of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony Type in Outbreaks of Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Eastern Tanzania. Acta. Vet. Scand. 41:311-319.

30) Orotta, L.M. Mlangwa J.E.D., Kazwala, R.R., Msami, H.M., March, J. and Kapaga,
A.M. (2003) Studies on the effectiveness of treatment against and on carrier status of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in experimentally infected goats. Tanzania Veterinary Journal. 22:29-42.

31) Mfinanga, G.S., Morkve, O.,  Kazwala, R.R., Cleaveland, S.,Sharp, J.M., Shirima, G.M., Nilsen, R., Kunda, J. and Chande J. (2003) The role of livestock keeping in tuberculosis trends in Arusha, Tanzania". International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases. 7(7):695 704.

32) Mfinanga, G.S., Morkve, O., Kazwala, R.R., Cleaveland, S.,Sharp, J.M., Shirima, G.M., Nilsen, R., Kunda, J. and Chande J. (2003) Tribal differences in perception of tuberculosis: a possible role in tuberculosis control in arusha, Tanzania. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases. 7(7):933-941.

33) Shirima, G.M., Kazwala, R.R., and Kambarage, D.M. (2003). Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in different farming systems in the eastern zone of Tanzania. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 57 (3):167-172

34) Mfinanga SG, Morkve O, Kazwala RR, Cleaveland S, Sharp MJ, Kunda J, Nilsen R. (2004). Mycobacterial adenitis: role of Mycobacterium bovis, non-tuberculous mycobacteria, HIV infection, and risk factors in Arusha, Tanzania. East Afr Med J. 81(4):171-8.
35) Cleaveland S, Mlengeya T, Kazwala RR, Michel A, Kaare MT, Jones SL, Eblate E, Shirima GM, Packer C (2005). Tuberculosis in Tanzanian wildlife. J Wildl Dis. Apr;41(2):446-53.    Mfinanga SG, Morkve O, Sviland L, Kazwala RR, Chande H, Nilsen R.( 2005). Patient knowledge, practices and challenges to health care system in early diagnosis of mycobacterial adenitis.East Afr Med J. 82(4):173-80.

37) Luziga Claudius, Yoshimi Yamamoto, Yoichiro Horii, Kazwala Rudovick and Koichi Mamba (2005). Molecular cloning, expression profile and functional implications of clusterin in the pituitary gland of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris). Cell Biology International 29: 657-686.

38) Kazwala RR, Kusiluka LJ, Sinclair K, Sharp JM, Daborn CJ (2006). The molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infections in Tanzania. Vet Microbiol. 112(2- 4):201-10.

39) Mdegela R. H., Nonga H.E., Ngowi H.A. and R. R. Kazwala (2006) Prevalence of thermophilic campylobacter infections in humans, chickens and crows in Morogoro, Tanzania– Journal Of Veterinary Medicine B 53(3):116-121.

40) Zinsstag J., Schelling E., Roth F. and Kazwala R. (2006). Economics of bovine tuberculosis (In: Mycobacterioum bovis, Thoen and Steele (Eds.) ISBN: 0813809193 Blackwell Scientific 352 pp.

41) Zinsstag J., Kazwala R., Cadmus I. and Ayanwale L. (2006). Mycobacterium bovis in Africa (In: Mycobacterioum bovis, Thoen and Steele (Eds.) ISBN: 0813809193 Blackwell Scientific 352 pp    Oloya J, Opuda-Asibo J, Djonne B, Muma JB, Matope G, Kazwala R, Skjerve E. (2006). Responses to tuberculin among Zebu cattle in the transhumance regions of Karamoja and Nakasongola district of Uganda. Trop Anim Health Prod. ;38(4):275-83.

43) Cleaveland S, Shaw DJ, Mfinanga SG, Shirima G, Kazwala RR, Eblate E, Sharp M. (2007). Mycobacterium bovis in rural Tanzania: Risk factors for infection in human and cattle populations. Tuberculosis (Edinb). ;87(1):30-43.

44) Oloya J, Muma JB, Opuda-Asibo J, Djonne B, Kazwala R, Skjerve E: (2007). Risk factors for herd-level bovine-tuberculosis seropositivity in transhumant cattle in Uganda. Prev Vet Med. 2007 Aug 16;80(4):318-29.

45) Oloya J, Kazwala R, Lund A, Opuda-Asibo J, Demelash B, Skjerve E, Johansen TB, Djønne B. (2007) Characterisation of mycobacteria isolated from slaughter cattle in pastoral regions of Uganda. BMC Microbiol. Oct 25;7:95.

46) Kunda J, Fitzpatrick J, Kazwala R, French NP, Shirima G, Macmillan A, Kambarage D, Bronsvoort M, Cleaveland S. (2007). Health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania. BMC Public Health;7(1):315

47) Knobel DL, Laurenson MK, Kazwala RR, Boden LA, Cleaveland S. (2008) A cross- sectional study of factors associated with dog ownership in Tanzania. BMC Vet Res. 2008 Jan 29;4(1):5

48) Durnez L, Eddyani M, Mgode GF, Katakweba A, Katholi CR, Machang'u RR, Kazwala RR, Portaels F, Leirs H.(2007) First findings of mycobacteria in African rodents and insectivores using stratified pool screening. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Feb;74(3):768- 73.

49) Oloya J, Opuda-Asibo J, Kazwala R, Demelash AB, Skjerve E, Lund A, Johansen TB, Djonne B. (2008) Mycobacteria causing human cervical lymphadenitis in pastoral communities in the Karamoja region of Uganda. Epidemiol Infect. 2008 May;136(5):636- 43.

50) Clifford D, Kazwala R, Coppolillo P, Mazet J (2008) Evaluating and Managing Zoonotic Disease Risk in Rural Tanzania (08-01-HALI). Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program of US Agency for International Development. http://glcrsp.ucdavis.edu/publications/HALI/08-01-HALI.pdf

51) John K, Kazwala R, Mfinanga GS. (2008). Knowledge of causes, clinical features and diagnosis of common zoonoses among medical practitioners in Tanzania. BMC Infect Dis. 2008 Dec 2;8(1):162

52) Bernardo Chessa, Filipe Pereira, Frederick Arnaud, Antonio Amorim, Félix Goyache, Ingrid Mainland, Rowland R. Kao, Josephine M. Pemberton, Dario Beraldi, Michael J. Stear, Alberto Alberti, Marco Pittau, Leopoldo Iannuzzi, Mohammad H. Banabazi, Rudovick R. Kazwala, Ya-ping Zhang, Juan J. Arranz, Bahy A. Ali, Zhiliang Wang, Metehan Uzun, Michel M. Dione, Ingrid Olsaker, Lars-Erik Holm, Urmas Saarma, Sohail Ahmad, Nurbiy Marzanov, Emma Eythorsdottir, Martin J. Holland, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan, Michael W. Bruford, Juha Kantanen, Thomas E. Spencer, Massimo Palmarini, (2009). Revealing the History of Sheep Domestication Using Retrovirus Integrations. Science Vol. 324. no. 5926, pp. 532 – 536.

53) Durnez L, Sadiki H, Katakweba A, Machang'u RR, Kazwala RR, Leirs H, Portaels F. (2009). The prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis-infection and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in and around Morogoro, Tanzania. Trop Anim Health Prod.;41(8):1653-9. Epub 2009 May 13.PMID: 19437127.

54) Müller B, Hilty M, Berg S, Garcia-Pelayo MC, Dale J, Boschiroli ML, Cadmus S, Ngandolo BN, Godreuil S, Diguimbaye-Djaibé C, Kazwala R, Bonfoh B, Njanpop- Lafourcade BM, Sahraoui N, Guetarni D, Aseffa A, Mekonnen MH, Razanamparany VR, Ramarokoto H, Djønne B, Oloya J, Machado A, Mucavele C, Skjerve E, Portaels F, Rigouts L, Michel A, Müller A, Källenius G, van Helden PD, Hewinson RG, Zinsstag J, Gordon SV, Smith NH (2009). African 1, an epidemiologically important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis dominant in Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad. J Bacteriol 191: 1951-1960.

55) Coppolillo P, Clifford D, Dickman A, Masozera M, Nguvava M, Kazwala R, Erickson J, Mazet J (2009) Landscape Factors with Livestock Disease Deaths in Idodi and Pawaga Divisions, Tanzania (09-01-HALI). Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program of US Agency for International Development. http://glcrsp.ucdavis.edu/publications/HALI/09-01-HALI.pdf

56) Clifford D, Kazwala R, Beasley V, Gilardi K, VanWormer E, Sadiki H, Mazet J (2009) Building Human Capacity to Solve Ecoystem Health Challenges in Developing Countries (09-02-HALI). Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program of US Agency for International Development.http://glcrsp.ucdavis.edu/publications/HALI/09-02- HALI.pdf

57) Marcotty T, Matthys F, Godfroid J, Rigouts L, Ameni G, van Pittius NG, Kazwala R, Muma J, van Helden P, Walravens K, de Klerk LM, Geoghegan C, Mbotha D, Otte M, Amenu K, Abu Samra N, Botha C, Ekron M, Jenkins A, Jori F, Kriek N, McCrindle C, Michel A, Morar D, Roger F, Thys E, van den Bossche P.(2009) Zoonotic tuberculosis and brucellosis in Africa: neglected zoonoses or minor public-health issues? The outcomes of a multi-disciplinary workshop. Ann Trop Med Parasitol . 2009 Jul;103(5):401-11.
58.) Ernest E, Nonga HE, Kassuku AA, Kazwala RR. (2009). Hydatidosis of slaughtered animals in Ngorongoro district of Arusha region, Tanzania. Trop Anim Health Prod . 2009 Oct;41(7):1179-85. Epub 2008 Dec 23. PMID: 19105043 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

59) Mazet JA, Clifford DL, Coppolillo PB, Deolalikar AB, Erickson JD, Kazwala RR. (2009). A "one health" approach to address emerging zoonoses: the HALI project in Tanzania. PLoS Med. 2009 Dec;6(12):e1000190.    Mazet J, Clifford D, Coppolillo P, Erickson J, Kazwala R (2010) New Medicine for Emerging Zoonoses: Reducing Disease Risk at Human-Animal-Environment Interfaces in Tanzania Using a One-Health Approach (10-01-HALI). Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program of US Agency for International Development. http://glcrsp.ucdavis.edu/publications/HALI/10-01-HALI.pdf

61) Miller M, Clifford D, Kazwala R, Kitime A, Kitambi A, Mazet J (2010) Fecal Pathogen Pollution in Surface Waters of the Ruaha Ecosystem, Tanzania (10-03-HALI). Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program of US Agency for International Development. http://glcrsp.ucdavis.edu/publications/HALI/10-03-HALI.pdf

62) Masozera M, Erickson J, Clifford D, Coppolillo P, Kazwala R, Sadiki H, Mazet J (2010) Public Health and Rural Livelihoods under Water Scarcity in the Ruaha Landscape, Tanzania (10-04-HALI). Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program of US Agency for International Development. http://glcrsp.ucdavis.edu/publications/HALI/10- 04-HALI.pdf

63) Tiziana Lembo, Katie Hampson, Magai T. Kaare, Eblate Ernest, Darryn Knobel, Rudovick R. Kazwala, Daniel T. Haydon, Sarah Cleaveland. (2010). The Feasibility of Canine Rabies Elimination in Africa: Dispelling Doubts with Data. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. Feb 2010.

64) John K., Fitzpatrick J., Fench N., Kazwala R., Kambarage D., Mfinanga G.S., MacMillan A. and Cleaveland S. (2010) Quantifying risk factors for human brucellosis in rural northern Tanzania.  PLoS One, 3: e9968

65) G.M. Shirima, J. Fitzpatrick, J.S. Kunda, G.S. Mfinanga, R.R. Kazwala, D.M. Kambarage and S. Cleaveland. The role of livestock keeping in human brucellosis trends in livestock keeping communities in Tanzania. Tanzanian Journal of Health Research. ISSN: 0856-6496, Vol 12, No 3 (2010), 232-237

66) Poling A, Weetjens BJ, Cox C, Mgode G, Jubitana M, Kazwala R, Mfinanga GS, Huis Using giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis in human sputum samples: 2009 findings. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Dec;83(6):1308-10

67) Lies Durnez, Abdul Katakweba, Harrison Sadiki, Charles R. Katholi, Rudovick R. Kazwala, Robert R. Machang'u, Françoise Portaels, and Herwig Leirs. 1Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania. Veterinary Medicine InternationalVolume 2011 (2011), Article ID 495074, 12 pagesdoi:10.4061/2011/495074

68) Berg S, Garcia-Pelayo MC, Müller B, Hailu E, Asiimwe B, Kremer K, Dale J, Boniotti MB, Rodriguez S, Hilty M, Rigouts L, Firdessa R, Machado A, Mucavele C, Ngandolo BN, Bruchfeld J, Boschiroli L, Müller A, Sahraoui N, Pacciarini M, Cadmus S, Joloba M, van Soolingen D, Michel AL, Djønne B, Aranaz A, Zinsstag J, van Helden P, Portaels F, Kazwala R, Källenius G, Hewinson RG, Aseffa A, Gordon SV, Smith NH. African 2, a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis epidemiologically important in East Africa. J Bacteriol. 2011 Feb;193(3):670-8. Epub 2010 Nov 19.
69) Smith NH, Berg S, Dale J, Allen A, Rodriguez S, Romero B, Matos F, Ghebremichael S, Karoui C, Donati C, Machado AD, Mucavele C, Kazwala RR, Hilty M, Cadmus S, Ngandolo BN, Habtamu M, Oloya J, Muller A, Milian-Suazo F, Andrievskaia O, Projahn M, Barandiarán S, Macías A, Müller B, Zanini MS, Ikuta CY, Rodriguez CA, Pinheiro SR, Figueroa A, Cho SN, Mosavari N, Chuang PC, Jou R, Zinsstag J, van Soolingen D, Costello E, Aseffa A, Proaño-Perez F, Portaels F, Rigouts L, Cataldi AA, Collins DM, Boschiroli ML, Hewinson RG, Neto JS, Surujballi O, Tadyon K, Botelho A, Zárraga AM, Buller N, Skuce R, Michel A, Aranaz A, Gordon SV, Jeon BY, Källenius G, Niemann S, Boniotti MB, van Helden PD, Harris B, Zumárraga MJ, Kremer K. European 1: A globally important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis. Infect Genet Evol. 2011 May 6

70) Mahoney A, Weetjens BJ, Cox C, Beyene N, Reither K, Makingi G, Jubitana M, Kazwala R, Mfinanga GS, Kahwa A, Durgin A, Poling A. (2012) Pouched rats' detection of tuberculosis in human sputum: comparison to culturing and polymerase chain reaction. Tuberc Res Treat. 2012;2012:716989. Epub 2012 Jul 9.PMID: 22848808

71) Gsell AS, Knobel DL, Kazwala RR, Vounatsou P, Zinsstag J.(2012) Domestic dog demographic structure and dynamics relevant to rabies control planning in urban areas in Africa: the case of Iringa, Tanzania. BMC Vet Res. 2012 Dec 5;8:236. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-236. PMID: 23217194

72) Cleaveland S. , Keyyu J., Auty H., Lembo T., Hampson K., Lankester F.J. and Kazwala R. (2012) Domestic animal health programs to protect wildlife. Compendium of the OIE Global Coference on Wildlife, 23-25 February 2011, Paris, OIE, pp. 91-100. http://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D12062.pdf

73) Mwakapuja RS, Makondo ZE, Malakalinga J, Bryssinckx W, Mdegela RH, Moser I, Kazwala RR, Tanner M. Prevalence and significant geospatial clusters of bovine tuberculosis infection at livestock-wildlife interface ecosystem in Eastern Tanzania. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2013 Jun;45(5):1223-30. doi: 10.1007/s11250-013-0350-2. Epub 2013 Jan 22..

74) D.L. Clifford, R.R. Kazwala, H.Sadiki, A.Roug, E.A.Muse, P.C. Coppolillo and J.A. K. Mazet. Tuberculosis infection in wildlife from the Ruaha ecosystem Tanzania: implications for wildlife, domestic animals, and human health. Epidemiol. Infect. (2013),141, 1371–1381.

75) Richard S. Mwakapuja, Zachariah E. Makondo, Joseph Malakalinga, Irmgard Moser, Rudovick R. Kazwala, Manfred Tanner (2013). Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from pastoral livestock at Mikumi-Selous ecosystem in the Eastern Tanzania Tuberculosis (Edinb). 93(6):668-74. doi: 10.1016/j.tube.2013.08.002. Epub 2013 Aug 29

76) Katale Z Bugwesa, Mbugi V Erasto, Karimuribo D Esron, Keyyu D Julius, Kendall Sharon, Kibiki S Gibson, Godfrey-Faussett Peter, Michel L Anita, Kazwala R Rudovick, van Helden Paul, Matee I Mecky (2013). Prevalence and risk factors for infection of bovine tuberculosis in indigenous cattle in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania, BMC Vet Res. 2013 Dec 30;9(1):267. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-9-267.
77) MB Mariki, ED Karimuribo, RR Kazwala (2013). Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in indigenous cattle in Gairo district of Morogoro Region in Tanzania. Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 28, No 1 51-59    Sayoki G.M. Mfinanga , Rob M. Warren, Rudovick Kazwala , Amos Kahwa, Thecla Kazimoto, Godfather Kimaro, Said Mfaume, Timothy Chonde , Esther Ngadaya, Said Egwaga , Elizabeth M. Streicher , Gey N.C. Van Pittius , Odd Morkve & Sarah Cleaveland (2014). Genetic profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treatment outcomes in human pulmonary tuberculosis in Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, Volume 16, Number 2, April 2014

79) Medardus JJ, Molla BZ, Nicol M, Morrow WM, Rajala-Schultz PJ, Kazwala R, Gebreyes WA.(2014) In-feed use of heavy metal micronutrients in U.S. swine production systems and its role in persistence of multidrug-resistant salmonellae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014 Apr;80(7):2317-25. doi: 10.1128/AEM.04283-13. Epub 2014 Jan 31. PMID: 24487542

80) Roug A, Perez A, Mazet JA, Clifford DL, VanWormer E, Paul G, Kazwala RR, Smith WA. (2014). Comparison of intervention methods for reducing human exposure to Mycobacterium bovis through milk in pastoralist households of Tanzania. Prev Vet Med. 2014 Aug 1;115(3-4):157-65. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.04.014.

81) Wondwossen A. Gebreyes, Jean Dupouy-Camet, Melanie J. Newport, Celso J. B. Oliveira, Larry S. Schlesinger, Yehia M. Saif, Samuel Kariuki, Linda J. Saif,  William Saville, Thomas Wittum, Armando Hoet, Sylvain Quessy, Rudovick Kazwala, Berhe Tekola, Thomas Shryock, Michael Bisesi, Prapas Patchanee, Sumalee Boonmar, Lonnie J. King (2014). "The Global One Health Paradigm: Challenges and Opportunities for Tackling Infectious Diseases at the Human, Animal, and Environment Interface in Low- Resource Settings"  PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8(11): e3257.  doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003257

82) Roug A, Clifford D, Mazet J, Kazwala R, John J, Coppolillo P, Smith W.(2014) Spatial predictors of bovine tuberculosis infection and Brucella spp. exposure in pastoralist and agropastoralist livestock herds in the Ruaha ecosystem of Tanzania. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2014 Jun;46(5):837-43. PMID: 24659301

83) Bugwesa Z Katale, Erasto V Mbugi, Louise Botha, Julius D Keyyu, Sharon Kendall, Hazel M Dockrell, Anita L Michel, Rudovick R Kazwala, Mark M Rweyemamu, Paul van Helden and Mecky I Matee (2014). Species diversity of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from humans, livestock and wildlife in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania. BMC Infectious Diseases, 14:616 doi:10.1186/s12879-014-0616-

84) Schwind JS, Goldstein T, Thomas K, Mazet JA, Smith WA; Kazwala R,et al. PREDICT Consortium..(2014) Capacity building efforts and perceptions for wildlife surveillance to detect zoonotic pathogens: comparing stakeholder perspectives. BMC Public Health. 2014 Jul 4;14:684. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-684.

85) Kashoma IP, Kumar A, Sanad YM, Gebreyes W, Kazwala RR, Garabed R, Rajashekara G.(2014) Phenotypic and genotypic diversity of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in commercial turkey flocks: a longitudinal study. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2014 Nov;11(11):850-60. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2014.1794. Epub 2014 Sep 3. PMID: 25184688

86) Lankester F, Lugelo A, Kazwala R, Keyyu J, Cleaveland S, Yoder J. (2015) The Economic Impact of Malignant Catarrhal Fever on Pastoralist Livelihoods. PLoS ONE 10(1): e0116059. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116059
87) Mgode GF, Cohen-Bacrie S, Bedotto M, Weetjens BJ, Cox C, Jubitana M, Kuipers D, Machang'u RS, Kazwala R, Mfinanga SG, Kaufmann SH, Drancourt M. (2015). Mycobacterium genotypes in pulmonary tuberculosis infections and their detection by trained African giant pouched rats.Curr Microbiol. 2015 Feb;70(2):212-8. doi: 10.1007/s00284-014-0705-6.

88) Christopher R Gustafson, Elizabeth VanWormer, Rudovick Kazwala, Asha Makweta, Goodluck6Paul, Woutrina Smith and Jonna AK Mazet (2015) Educating pastoralists and extension officers on diverse livestock diseases in a changing environment in Tanzania. Pastoralism 2015, 5:1

89) Jo E. B. Halliday, Kathryn J. Allan, Divine Ekwem, Sarah Cleaveland, Rudovick R. Kazwala, and John A. Crump (2015). Endemic zoonoses in the tropics: a public health problem hiding in plain sight. Veterinary Record 2015;176:220-225 doi:10.1136/vr.h798

90) Assenga JA, Matemba LE, Muller SK, Mhamphi GG, Kazwala RR (2015) Predominant Leptospiral Serogroups Circulating among Humans, Livestock and Wildlife in Katavi- Rukwa Ecosystem, Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(3): e0003607. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003607

91) Titus Mlengeya Kamani, Rudovick Kazwala, Sayoki Mfinanga, Dan Haydon, Julius Keyyu, Felix Lankester and Joram Buza (2015). One Health: a concept led by Africa, with Global benefits. Veterinary Record 2015 176: 496-497.

92) Felix Lankester, Ahmed Lugelo, Nicholas Mnyambwa, Ahab Ndabigaye, Julius Keyyu, Rudovick Kazwala, Dawn M. Grant, Valerie Relf, David M. Haig, Sarah Cleaveland, George C. Russell (2015). Alcelaphine Herpesvirus-1 (Malignant Catarrhal Fever Virus) in Wildebeest Placenta: Genetic Variation of ORF50 and A9.5 Alleles. PLoS ONE 10 (5): e0124121. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124121

93) Assenga JA, Matemba LE, Muller SK, Malakalinga JJ, Kazwala RR (2015). Epidemiology of Brucella infection in the human, livestock and wildlife interface in the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem, Tanzania. BMC Vet Res. 2015 Aug 8;11:189. doi: 10.1186/s12917-015-0504-8.

94) Kashoma IP, Kassem II, John J, Kessy BM, Gebreyes W, Kazwala RR, Rajashekara G (2015) Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania. . Microb Drug Resist. 2016 Jan;22(1):40-52. doi: 10.1089/mdr.2015.0079. Epub 2015 Jul 8. PMID: 26153978.

95) Kathryn Allan, Holly Biggs, Jo Halliday, Rudovick R. Kazwala, Vance Maro, Sarah Cleaveland and John A. Crump had their paper “Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Africa: A Systematic Review of a Neglected Zoonosis and a Paradigm for ‘One Health’ in Africa” published in PloS NTD this week. Find the paper at: http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.00038…

96) Justine A. Assenga , Lucas E. Matemba, Joseph J. Malakalinga, Shabani K. Muller, Rudovick R. Kazwala (2015) Quantitative analysis of risk factors associated with brucellosis in livestock in the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem, Tanzania. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2016 Feb;48(2):303-9. doi: 10.1007/s11250-015-0951-z.

97) Katale BZ, Mbugi EV, Siame KK, Keyyu JD, Kendall S, Kazwala RR, Dockrell HM, Fyumagwa RD, Michel AL, Rweyemamu M, Streicher EM, Warren RM, van Helden P, Matee MI. (2015). Isolation and Potential for Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis at Human-livestock-wildlife Interface of the Serengeti Ecosystem, Northern Tanzania. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2015 Nov 13. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12445. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 2656341
98) Helen L. Zhang, Kunda W. Mnzava, Sarah T. Mitchell, Matayo L. Melubo, Tito J. Kibona, Sarah Cleaveland, Rudovick R. Kazwala, John A. Crump, Joanne P. Sharp, Jo E. B. Halliday (2016). Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Mar 4;10(3):e0004476. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004476.

99) Viana M, Shirima GM, John KS, Fitzpatrick J, Kazwala RR, Buza JJ, Cleaveland S, Haydon DT, Halliday JE. (2016) Integrating serological and genetic data to quantify cross-species transmission: brucellosis as a case study. Parasitology. 2016 Mar 3:1-14.

100)  Annette Roug , Epaphras A. Muse, Woutrina A. Smith, Jonna A. K. Mazet,  Rudovick
R. Kazwala, Danielle Harvey, Goodluck Paul , Godwell O. Meing’ataki , Paul Banga and Deana L. Clifford (2016). Demographics and parasites of African buffalo (Syncerus cafferSparrman,1779) in Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology  146 - 153 Article first published online: 10 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/aje.12275

101) Zacharia Mtema, Joel Changalucha, Sarah Cleaveland, Martin Elias, Heather M. Ferguson, Jo E. B. Halliday, Daniel T. Haydon, Gurdeep Jaswant, Rudovick Kazwala, Gerry F. Killeen, Geofrey J. M. Mchau, Roderick Murray-Smith, Kristyna Rysava, Khadija Said, Maganga Sambo, Elizabeth Shayo, Lwitiko Sikana, Sunny E Townsend, Honorathy Urassa, Katie Hampson (2016).•Mobile Phones As Surveillance Tools: Implementing and Evaluating a Large-Scale Intersectoral Surveillance System for Rabies in Tanzania. Apr 2016 • PLoS Medicine

102) Shabani K. Muller, Justine A. Assenga, Lucas E. Matemba, Gerald Misinzo and Rudovick R. Kazwala (2016). Human leptospirosis in Tanzania: sequencing and phylogenetic analysis confirm that pathogenic Leptospira species circulate among agro- pastoralists living in Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem. BMC Infectious Diseases .201616:273 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-016-1588.

103) David J. Wolking, Deana L. Clifford,Terra R. Kelly, Enos Kamani, Woutrina A. Smith, Rudovick R. Kazwala and Jonna A.K. Mazet (2016) Boma to banda - A disease  sentinel concept for reduction of diarrhoea. Pastoralism Research, Policy and Practice 2016 6:13 DOI: 10.1186/s13570-016-0059-8

104) Chuma IS, Nonga HE, Mdegela RH, Kazwala RR . (2016) Epidemiology and RAPD- PCR typing of thermophilic campylobacters from children under five years and chickens in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Nov 21;16(1):692. PMID: 27871251

105) Manyilizu, W.B., Mdegela, R.H., Kazwala, R.R., Nonga, H.E., Müller, Lie, E., Skjerve, E., and Lyche, J.L. (2016). Association of long-term pesticide exposure and biological parameters in female farm workers in Tanzania: A cross sectional study. Toxics, 4: 25; doi:10.3390/toxics4040025

106) Maganga Sambo, Paul C. D. Johnson, Karen Hotopp, Joel Changalucha, Sarah Cleaveland, Rudovick Kazwala, Tiziana Lembo, Ahmed Lugelo, Kennedy Lushasi, Mathew Maziku, Eberhard Mbunda†, Zacharia Mtema, Lwitiko Sikana, Sunny E. Townsend and Katie Hampson (2017) Comparing Methods of Assessing Dog Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Rural and Urban Communities in Tanzania, Front. Vet. Sci., 14 March 2017 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2017.00033

107) S. Cleaveland, J. Sharp, B. Abela-Ridder, K. J. Allan, J. Buza, J. A. Crump, A. Davis, V.
J. Del Rio Vilas, W. A. de Glanville, R. R. Kazwala, T. Kibona, F. J. Lankester, A. Lugelo, B. T. Mmbaga, M. P. Rubach, E. S. Swai, L. Waldman, D. T. Haydon, K. Hampson, J. E. B. Halliday (2017) One Health contributions towards more effective  and equitable approaches to health in low- and middle-income countries. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 2017 372 20160168; DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0168. Published 5 June 2017

108) Simon J. Anthony, Christine K. Johnson, Denise J. Greig, Sarah Kramer, Xiaoyu Che, Heather Wells, Allison L. Hicks , Damien O. Joly, Nathan D. Wolfe, Peter Daszak, William Karesh , W. I. Lipkin, Stephen S. Morse, PREDICT Consortium (http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/ohi/predict/publications/Authorship.cfm), Jonna A. K. Mazet, and Tracey Goldstein (2017) Global patterns in coronavirus diversity. Virus Evolution, 2017, 3(1): vex012 doi: 10.1093/ve/vex012.

109) Mnyambwa NP, Kim DJ, Ngadaya ES, Kazwala R, Petrucka P, Mfinanga SG (2017) Clinical implication of novel drug resistance-conferring mutations in resistant tuberculosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017 Jun 7. doi: 10.1007/s10096-017-3027- 3.

Papers Presented to Conferences/Workshops

1) Kazwala, R.R., Hannan, J., Collins, J.D., Crinioni, R.A.P. and O'mahony H.(1989) The factors responsible for the establishment of Campylobacter jejuni in commercial poultry meat production. In Proceedings of the 10th symposium of World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists; 2 - 7 July 1989; Stockholm - Sweden 142 - 144pp.

2) Mbassa, G. and Kazwala, R.R. (1992) The Importance of Veterinary Baseline Data Management in Tanzania. In Proceedings of the Workshop on the Role of Veterinary Profession in Promoting Animal Health and Production in Tanzania. Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania (February 1992) 113-118pp.

3) Kazwala, R.R., Catley, A.P., Daborn, C.J. and Kambarage, D.M. (1993) The zoonotic implications of bovine tuberculosis in Tanzania. In Proceedings of the 10th Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, 1 - 3rd December 1992, Arusha, Tanzania 10:67-81

4) Kambarage, D.M.K., Kazwala, R.R., Mtambo, M.M.A. and Kimera,S.I (1993) Public health and animal disease implications of current urban livestock keeping. In  Proceedings of the 10th Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, 1 - 3rd December 1992, Arusha, Tanzania 10:20-25

5) Kazwala, R.R., Kambarage, D.M., Sharp, J.M., Daborn, C. and Nyange, JF (1995) Studies of the zoonotic implication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms in Tanzania- Molecular Biology approach - preliminary report. In proceedings of 11th Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, 1-3 December 1994, Arusha, (In Press).

6) Kazwala, R.R., Sinclair, K., Challans, J., Kambarage, D.M., Sharp, J.M. van Embden, J.D.A., Daborn, C.J. and Nyange, J.F. (1995). Studies of the zoonotic importance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms in Tanzania: A molecular biology approach. In proceedings of the second international conference on animal tuberculosis in Africa and the Middle East 04-06 October, Rabat, Morocco 199-204pp.

7) Kazwala, R.R., Kambarage, D.M., Daborn, C.J., Nyange, J.F. and Sharp, J.M. (1995). Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in indigenous cattle of the southern highlands of Tanzania: Country report. In proceedings of the second international conference on animal tuberculosis in Africa and the Middle East 04-06 October, Rabat, Morocco 27- 36pp.
8) Daborn, C.J., Kazwala, R.R. and Kambarage, D.M. (1995). Bovine tuberculosis in research programme in Tanzania - Interim report. In proceedings of the second international conference on animal tuberculosis in Africa and the Middle East 04-06 October, Rabat, Morocco 191-198pp.

9) Kazwala, R.R. and Majaliwa, K. (1997). Import and export  policy  of animals and animal products in Tanzania. In Proceedings of Scientific Conference of 20th Anniversary of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture, 13-14 May, Morogoro, Tanzania 141-147.

10) Karimuribo, E., Kambarage, D.M., Lema, B.E., Kazwala, R.R., Mtambo, M.M.A. and Kusiluka, L.J.M. (1997). Factors influencing the effective control of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Tanzania. In proceedings of the Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, 3-5 December 1997, Arusha, 195-206.

11) Jiwa, SFH., Mdegela, RH., and Kazwala, R.R., (1997). Epidemiology of thermophilic Campylobacter species in aparently healthy domestic ducks Anas platyrhynchos kept on free range without veterinary inputs in Morogoro Municipality. In proceedings of the Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, 3-5 December 1997, Arusha, 73- 81.

12) Kazwala , R.R (1998). Approaches to bovine tuberculosis survillance and control in countries with limited Resources. Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva – Supplemento 1998 : 108-113

13) Jiwa, SFH., Kazwala, RR, Maselle, RM and Mnembuka, BV (1998). Fish related public health issues needing attention in Tanzania. In Proceedings of the Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, 1-3 December 1998, Arusha, Vol. 18 Supplementary 4.: 36-41.

14) Jiwa, SFH., Kazwala RR and Shoo, M.M.(1998). Putative pathogenic bacteria and other microbes of public health importance isolated from Morogoro area and beyond between 1983-1998: Health versus poverty. In Proceedings of the Tanzania Public  Health Association 17th Annual Scientific Conference Tanga,: 23-26 November 1998 Tanga, Tanzania. pages 104 - 109.

15) Minja, MG., Kurwijila, RL. and Kazwala, RR. (1998). Occurrence and survival of Mycobacteria species in fermented milk from traditional cattle herds: A case study of Usangu Plains in Southern Highlands Tanzania. In Proceedings of Tanzania Society For Animal Production. Vol 25:199-202.

16) R.R. Kazwala (1999) The Problems Of Drug Residues In Foods And Feeds In Tanzania: Challenges And Prospects In The 21st Century. In Proceedings of the Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, 30 Nov.-2 December 1999, Arusha Vol. 90- 94.

17) Kazwala, R.R.., Shirima, G. M., Ngotonie, F., Minja, M., Kurwijila, L., Kambarage, D., Jiwa, SFH and Sharp, M.. (1999). Preponderance Of Mycobacterium Other Than Tuberculous (Mott) Infection In Cattle A Cause Of Concern To Human Health In Tanzania?. In Proceedings of the Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, 30 Nov.-2 December 1999, Arusha Vol. 19:183-194.

18) Shirima, G. M., Kazwala, R.R.., Kambarage, D., and Sharp, M.. (1999). Studies on  the distribution of tuberculous lesions in slaughter cattle. In Proceedings of the Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, 30 Nov.-2 December 1999, Arusha. Vol. 19:178-182.
19) Jiwa, S.F.H. ; Kazwala, R.R. ; Aboud, A.A.O. ; Mnembuka, B.V. and Mwacha, S.R (1999) comparative prevalence of aerobic bacteria from indicated sites of apparently healthy New Zealand white rabbits reared in battery cages. In Proceedings of the Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, 30 Nov.-2 December 1999,  Arusha  Vol. 19:195-201.

20) Kazwala R.R., Sharp, J.M., Shirima, G.M., Cleaveland, S., Ernest, E.M., Buza, J. and Kmbarage, D.M. (2000). The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Rift valley districts based on single intradermal comparative tuberculin testing. In Proceedings of the Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, 5 to 7th December 2000, Arusha Vol. 20:136-140.

21) Mfinanga, G.S. Kazwala, R.R., Sharp, J.M., Shirima, G.M., Cleaveland, S., Morkve, O., Nilsen, R., Kunda, J. and Chande J.  The Epidemiology of human tuberculosis caused  by
M. bovis in Arusha, Tanzania (Preliminary findings). In Proceedings of the Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, 5 to 7th December 2000, Arusha Vol. 20:160-169.

22) Luziga, C. Buza, J.J. and Kazwala, R.R. (2002) Evaluation of Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium  bovis in clinical specimens. In Proceedings of the Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, December 2001, Arusha  Vol. 21.

23) Kazwala R.R. and Bitanyi S. (2003) Quality Control of Foods of Animal Origin. In Proceedings of the Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, December 2003, Arusha  Vol. 23: 37-60.

24) Kazwala, R.R.,Bitanyi, S., Ndabikunze B. and Dhalla, K (2005). The Antimicrobial Properties of Honey from Different Climatic Zones of Tanzania. In Proceedings of the Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, December 2005, Arusha  Vol. 25.

25) Lembo T., Auty H., Fyumagwa R., Haydon D., Hoare R., Kamani E., Kasanga C., Kazwala R., King D. P., Knight-Jones T., Knowles N., Marsh T.,  Mshanga D., Parekh  K., Parida S., Paton D., Reeve R., Yoder J. and Cleaveland S. Patterns and household implications of foot-and-mouth disease in rural Tanzanian communities. 13th International Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Maastrict, The Netherlands, August 2012

26) T. Lembo, S. Parida, D. Mshanga, E. Kamani, R. Fyumagwa, K. Parekh, R. Reeve, R. Kazwala, D. King, D. Haydon and S. Cleaveland. Understanding patterns of foot-and- mouth disease infection in livestock and wildlife populations in Africa to develop approaches for its control. 3rd European Congress of Conservation Biology, Glasgow,  UK, 28 August – 1 September 2012.

27) Lembo T., Auty H., Casey M., Cleaveland S., Fyumagwa R., Haydon D. T., Kasanga C., Kazwala R., King D. P., Mshanga D., Parekh K., Paton D. J., Reeve R., Yongolo M. and Parida S. Epidemiological patterns and risk factors for foot-and-mouth disease exposure in traditional livestock-keeping systems of Northern Tanzania. Open Session of the Research Group of the Standing Technical Committee of the European Commission for the control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, October 2012.

Other Unpublished Documents

1) Kazwala, R.R. (1988) The studies on the origin and quantitative distribution of thermophilic campylobacters in poultry and poultry processing plants. MVM  Thesis (UCD) pp 249.

2) Kazwala, R.R. (1996) Molecular epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in Tanzania. PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh, pp 317


1). Study on Formulation of Livestock Sector Development Strategy - Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries (March 2008)

2).A needs assessment and development of training modules for the Continuing Professional Development in      Veterinary Public Health in East Africa. - FAO (2011-2013)

3).Improving Food safety Management in Tanzania (UNJP/URT/138/UNJ) - FAO (2012 - 2016)


​​​​​​Employment record at the University

  1. Assistant Lecturer (1988  - 1991)
  2. Lecturer (1991  - 1994)
  3. Senior Lecturer(1994  - 1998)
  4. Associate Director - Computer Centre (1997  - 2000)
  5. Associate Professor(1998 - 2001)
  6. Acting Head of Department (1998 - 1999)
  7. Head of Department (1999 - 2000)
  8. Director Computer Centre (2000 – 2006)
  9. Professor (2001 – Now)
  10. Adjunct Professor- Ohio State University (2011 - Now)
  11. Acting Dean,Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (March 2015 - May 2016)

Previous Employment

  1. Livestock Field Assistant (Musoma Resolution) -1979 -1980
  2. District Livestock Development Officer (Mufindi District) - 1985

Work Experience

  1. Professor of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety    ( 1998 - now )
  2. Professor Veterinary Epidemiology      (1998 - now )
  3. Researcher in Bovine tuberculosis      (1992 - now )
  4. Researcher in and CBPP/CCPP           (1997 - 2004)
  5. Researcher in Bovine Brucellosis         ( 2001 - now )
  6. Researcher in Thermophilic campylobacters    (1990 - now )
  7. Coordinator – NUFU PhD Programme for SADC Region – Zoonoses Section  (2002 – 2009)
  8. Coordinator – Health Animal and Livelihood Improvement in Ruaha Ecosystem Project 2006 -
  9. Dep. Coordinator - SUA Quality Assurance and Promotion Bureau      (2013- 2017)
  10. Coordinator SUA University Teaching and Learning Improvement Programme  (2013 - 2017)


  1. Tanzania Veterinary Association – Chairman (2005 – 2011)
  2. International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease – Vice Chairman Animal Tuberculosis Section
  3. Tanzania Food and Drug Authority - Technical Committee  for Foods – member
  4. African Consortium for Population and Ecosystem Health – Management Board (2009 – now)
  5. University of Glasgow, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology - International Scientific Advisory 6.Board (2011 – 2014)
  6. Veterinary Council of Tanzania - Vice Chairman (2011 -2013)
  7. Veterinary Council of Tanzania - Chairman 2013 -
  8. Member of Field Operations Team - Global Virome Project 2017-



Contact information

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health
College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences
Sokoine University of Agriculture

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